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Kevin Colwell

colwell

Professor

Ph.D., Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX

Email: colwellk2@southernct.edu

Phone: (203) 392-6871

Research Interests:

Investigative Interviewing, Credibility Assessment, Deception and its Detection, Malingering

Teaching Interests:

Psychology and Law, Clinical Psychology (assessment, diagnosis, and treatment)

Research Projects:

ACID – Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception
TOMI – Test of Malingered Incompetence
Investigative Interviewing, Disclosure Decision Making among Witnesses and Suspects
Impression Management in Intimate Relationships
Two-alternative, Forced-choice Testing of Response Style
Deception and Memory Change
Forensic and Clinical Assessment and Treatment

Professional:

Professional Witness – Investigative Interviewing and Interrogations

Director, Office of Psychological Assessment – an office at SCSU where I supervise Graduate Student Clinicians who conduct Neurocognitive, Educational, and General Psychological Assessments.

Peer-Reviewed Publications and Chapters:

Derosa, J., Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C. K., Blythe, A., Hall, A., Boogard, G. (under review) Investigative Interviewing techniques, Differential Recall Enhancement, and Credibility Assessment.

Colwell, K., Memon, A., James-Kangal, N., Cole, L., & Wirsing, E. (under review). Lies from the Innocent: Omissions by Suspects during Investigative Interviews.

Werdin, K., Colwell, K., Bessenoff, G., Hartwig, M. (under review). Interviewing and Credibility Assessment of statements via instant messenger.  

Colwell, K., James-Kangal, N., Hiscock-Anisman, C., & Phelan, V. (2015). Should police use ACID? Training and credibility assessment using transcripts versus recordings.  Journal Of Forensic Psychology Practice, 15(3), 226-247.

Gavigan, B. Kansinally, A., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Pankratz, L., & Colwell, K. (under review). Using the Forced-Choice technique for witness elimination and detecting deception.

Cavagnaro, A., Shuster, S. & Colwell, K. (2013). Classification discrepancies in two intelligence tests: Forensic implications for persons with developmental disabilities. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 13(1), 49-67.

Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., & Fede, J. (2013). Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception (ACID): An example of the new paradigm of Differential Recall Enhancement. In: B.S. Cooper, D. Griesel & M. Ternes (Eds.) Applied issues in eyewitness memory, credibility assessment, and investigative interviewing.

Montalvo, L., Hallinan, C., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Morrissey, D., Bonilla, Y., Colwell, K., Kradas, M. (2013). Using ACID to improve credibility assessments with written and audio statements. American Journal of Forensic Psychology.

Colwell, L.H., Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Hartwig, M., Cole, L., Werdin, K., &  Youschak, K. (2012). Teaching professionals to detect deception: The efficacy of  a brief training workshop.  Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 12,68-80.

Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Corbett, L., Bonilla, Y., Memon, A., & Hauselt, W. J. (2011). Change in Suspect’s Memory as a result of Deception.  American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 29(4), 1-9.

Ansarra, R., Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C., Hines, A.,  Fleck, R.,  Kondor, S. & Cole, L. (2011). Augmenting ACID with affective details to assess credibility. European Journal of Psychology Applied to the Legal Context,3(2), 1-10.  

Colwell, L.H., Colwell, K. (2011). Assessing feigned cognitive impairment in defendants hospitalized for Competency Restoration: Further validation of the TOMI. Forensic Psychology Practice. 11, 219-310.

Morgan, C.A., Hazelett, G., & Colwell, K. (2011). The efficacy of forensic statement analysis in distinguishing truthful from deceptive accounts of highly stressful events. Forensic Sciences 56(5), 1227-1234.

Suckle-Nelson, J.A., Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C., Florence, S., Youschak, K.E., & Duarte, A. (2010). Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception (ACID): Replication and gender differences. Open Criminology 3. 23-30.

Hines, A., Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C., Garrett, E. , Ansarra, R ,& Montalvo, L. (2010). Impression management strategies of deceivers and honest reporters in an investigative interview. European Journal of Psychology Applied to the Legal Context 2(1). 73-90.

Memon, A., Fraser, J., Colwell, K., Odino, G., & Mastroberadino, S. (2009). Distinguishing truthful from invented accounts using Reality Monitoring criteria. Legal and Criminological Psychology15 (2), 177-194.

Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Memon, A., Colwell, L., Taylor, L., & Woods, D.           (2009). Training in Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception (ACID) to improve credibility assessments. Forensic Psychology Practice, 9. 199-207.

Morgan, III, C. A., Colwell, K., Steffian, G., & Hazlett, G. (2008). Efficacy of verbal and global judgment cues in the detection of deception in Moroccans interviewed via an interpreter. Journal of Intelligence Community Research and Development, 3,1

Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Memon, A., Taylor, L., & Prewett, J. (2008). Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception (ACID): An integrated system of investigative interviewing and detecting deception. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling 4(3). 167-180.

Colwell, K., Colwell, L.H., Perry, A.T., Wasieleski, D., & Billings, T. (2008). The Test of Malingered Incompetence: A forced-choice instrument for assessing malingering in competence to stand trial evaluations. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 26. 17-42.

Morgan, C.A., Steffian, G., Colwell, K., Coric, V., & Hazlett, G.A.  (2007). Efficacy of forensic statement analysis in distinguishing true from false eyewitness accounts. Journal of Intelligence Community Research and Development.

Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C., Memon, A., Rachel, A., & Colwell, L. (2007). Vividness and spontaneity of statement detail characteristics as predictors of witness credibility. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 25, 1-25.

Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K, Woods, D., Memon, A., & Michlik, M. (2006).  How liars attempt to convince: Strategies of impression management and deception regarding a simulated theft. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 24, 31-38.

Colwell, K., & Sjerven, E. (2005). The “Coin-in-Hand” stratagem for the forensic assessment of malingering. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 23, 83-89.

Perry, B.D., Colwell, K., & Schick, S. (2002). Child neglect. In D. Levinson, Encyclopedia of crime and punishment (Vol. 1, pp. 192-196). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Colwell, K., Hiscock, C.K., & Memon, A.  (2002). Interviewing techniques and the assessment of statement credibility. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16, 287-300.

Edens, J.F., & Buffington-Vollum, J.K., Colwell, K.W., Johnson, J.K., & Johnson, D. (2000). Psychopathy and institutional misbehavior among incarcerated sex offenders: A comparison of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and the Personality Assessment Inventory. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 1, 49-58.

Colwell, K. (December, 2000). Psychological intervention and cultural diversity (book review). Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Today.

 

Conference Presentations:

 Hiscock, C.K., Elliot, J.M., Carpenter, M., & Colwell, K. (1995). Discriminating honest from biased recall in eyewitness testimony: A credibility assessment through Statement Validity Analysis. Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Hiscock, C.K., Burgin, K., Elliot, J.M., Colwell, K., Means, L.R., & Carpenter, D.M. (1996). Prevarication or recall failure: Biased patterns in eyewitness testimony as a function of inferential inquiry. Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Hiscock, C.K., Elliot, J.M., Means, L.R., Colwell, K., & Carpenter, D.M. (1996). Criteria-Based Content Analysis of inmates’ statements: Distinguishing honest from biased eyewitness testimony. American College of Forensic Psychology, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Hiscock, C.K., Clarkson, J., Bernshausen, D., Colwell, K. (1997). The things left unsaid: An analysis of patterns of detail in eyewitness testimony. Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Louisville, Kentucky.

Hiscock, C.K., Colwell, K., & Johnson, D. (1997). Differential efficacies of interview techniques in the assessment of statement credibility. American College of Forensic Psychology, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Hiscock, C.K, Johnson, D.W., & Colwell, K. (1997). Analysis of patterns of detail in eyewitness testimony. American Psychological Association, Chicago, Illinois.

Hiscock, C.K., Colwell, K., & Sweeney, B. (1997). The deceptive witness recognized: An analysis of patterns of detail in honest and biased eyewitness testimony. American Society of Criminology, San Diego, California.

Hiscock, C.K, & Colwell, K. (1998). The assessment of statement credibility through analysis of verbal content. American College of Forensic Psychology, San Francisco, California.

Hiscock, C.K., Schneekloth, P., & Colwell, K. (1998). Psycholinguistic credibility assessment. American Psychological Association, San Francisco, California.

Hiscock, C.K., & Colwell, K. (1998). Interviewing techniques and the assessment of statement credibility. American Psychology-Law Society, Redondo Beach, California.

Hiscock, C.K., & Colwell, K. (1999). Interviewing techniques and the psycholinguistic assessment of statement credibility. Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Boulder, Colorado.

Hiscock, C.K., & Colwell, K. (August, 1999). Lies from within: Reality monitoring and deception in an incarcerated population. American Psychological Association, Boston, Massachusetts.

Colwell, K., Hiscock, C.K., Memon, A., & Kinney, J. (March, 2000). Statistical and methodological issues in verbal credibility assessment. Paper presented at the American Psychology-Law Society, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Colwell, K. (July, 2000). Hugo Munsterberg: A study in the origins of applied psychology. Paper presented at the Southwestern Psychological Association, Dallas, Texas.

Hiscock, C.K., Colwell, K., Townley, S., & Memon, A. (August, 2000). Reality Monitoring and deception in an incarcerated population. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

Colwell, K., Edens, J. F., Willoughby, F., Hauser, L., & Adinoff, B. (August, 2000). The Stages of Change and Treatment Readiness Scale in substance abuse treatment. Poster presented at the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

Edens, J. F., & Colwell, K. (August, 2000). Relationship between the ANT subscale of the Personality Assessment Inventory and the PCL-R in offenders referred for sexually violent predator assessments. Poster presented at the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., & Memon, A. (March, 2002). How liars attempt to convince. Paper presented at the American Psychology-Law Society, Austin, Texas.

Colwell, K., Sjerven, E., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., & Memon, A. (July, 2003). The story unfolds: An examination of honest and deceptive responding over the course of a cognitive interview. Poster presented at the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Aberdeen, Scotland.

Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Sjerven, E., Memon, A., & Yaeger, H. (July, 2003). Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception. Poster presented at the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Aberdeen, Scotland.

Colwell, K. Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., & Memon, A. (July, 2003). Measuring testimony: A comparison of two mechanisms Reality Monitoring of interpersonal deception. Poster presented at the European-American Psychology-Law Society, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Sjerven, E., & Colwell, K. (2003). The coin-in-hand technique as a forced-choice malingering screen for forensic assessments. Poster presented at the European-American Psychology-Law Society, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Colwell, K., Leach, A., Sjerven, E., Poole, V., Stoneberg, B., & Lindsay, R.C.L. (March, 2004). Assessment criteria indicative of deception with children’s testimony. Poster presented at the American Psychology-Law Society, Scottsdale, Arizona.

Woods, D., Colwell, K., Colwell, L., Wasieleski, D., & Hiscock-Anisman, C.K. (2005). Can empirically-derived Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception improve credibility assessments? Poster presented at the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, California.

Colwell, K., Colwell, L.H., Woods, D., Wasieleski, D., Billings, T, & Pinera, G. (March, 2006). Development and validation of the Test of Malingered Incompetence (TOMI). Poster presented at the American Psychology-Law Society, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Woods, D., Colwell, K., Colwell, L. H., Wasieleski, D., Hiscock-Anisman, C. K., & Memon, A. (March, 2006). A replication of training in Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception (ACID) and credibility assessment. Poster presented at the American Psychology-Law Society, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Rachel, A., Santoro, M., Wasieleski, D., Colwell, K., & Colwell, L. (2006). Test of Malingered Incompetence (TOMI): A screen for feigned cognitive impairment and /or feigned incompetence to stand trial. Poster presented at the Southeastern Psychological Association, Atlanta, Georgia.

Cavagnaro, A., Ilizirov, S., & Colwell, K. (August, 2006). A comparison of intelligence tests in persons with developmental disabilities. Poster presented at the American Psychological Association, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Colwell, K. (2006). Future directions for Inter-Disciplinary Forensic Institute: Closing session. Paper presented at the Interdisciplinary Forensic Institute, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, Georgia.

Colwell, K. (2006). The development and validation of ACID (Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception). Lunch presentation at the Interdisciplinary Forensic Institute, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, Georgia.

Colwell, K. (2006). How to get into graduate school in Clinical Psychology. Paper presented at the Georgia Psychological Society, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, Georgia.

Colwell, K. (2006). Assessment of malingering and deception. Paper presented that the Georgia Psychological Society, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, Georgia.

Colwell, K. (2006). The Coin-in-Hand test for the assessment of malingering with suspected cognitive impairment. Paper presented that the Georgia Psychological Society, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, Georgia.

Colwell, K. (April, 2007). ACID and high stakes judgments of credibility. Paper presented as part of a panel at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New York, New York.

Corbett, L., Uerz, E., Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., & Memon, A. (March, 2008). Change in suspect’s memory as a result of deception. Poster presented at the American Psychology-Law Society, Jacksonville, Florida.

Colwell, K., Anisman, C., Miller, J., Ansarra, R., Hines, A., & Memon, A. (July, 2008). Operationalizing RM criteria to assess control of information and impression management. Paper presented at the European Association for Psychology and Law, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Colwell, K. Uerz, E.,Hines, A., Ansarra, R., & Memon, A. (July, 2008). A comparison of the Cognitive and Reality Interviews with Suspects of a Staged Theft. Paper presented at the European Association for Psychology and Law, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Hines, A., Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Ansarra, R., Davis, E., & Duva, A. (July, 2008). Forced-choice questions and credibility assessment regarding a staged theft. Paper presented at the European Association for Psychology and Law, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Ansarra, R., Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K.,Hines, A.L., & Memon, A. (July, 2008). Affective details and credibility assessment in suspects of a staged theft. Paper presented at the European Association for Psychology and Law, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Colwell, K. (September, 2008). Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception in trial transcripts. Paper presented to the Connecticut State Court Reporter’s Association.

Colwell, L.H., Colwell, K. (March, 2009). The Test of Malingered Incompetence (TOMI): Further validation of a malingering screen for competence to stand trial evaluations. Poster presented at the American Psychology-Law Society, San Antonio, Texas.

Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Suckle-Nelson, J., Colwell, K., Youschack, K., Florence, S., & Duarte, A. (March, 2010). Investigative interviewing and credibility assessment with inmates: Replications, extensions, and gender differences. Paper submitted as part of symposium to the American Psychology-Law Society, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Werdin, K., Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Hartwig, M., Bessenoff, G., & Savaria, D. (March, 2010). Investigative interviewing and statement analysis applied to Internet-mediated deception about one’s identity. Paper presented as part of symposium to the American Psychology-Law Society, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Colwell, L.H., Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Hartwig, M., Cole, L., Werdin, K., & Youshcak, K. (March, 2010). Teaching professionals to detect deception: The efficacy of a brief training workshop. Paper submitted to the annual conference of the American Psychology-Law Society, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Doering, N., Hartwig, M., Werdin, K., Colwell, K, Hiscock-Anisman, C.K. (June, 2010). Strategies of Impression Management and Deception used during communication over an Instant Messenger System. A paper to be presented at the annual conference of the European Association of Psychology and Law.

Montalvo, L., Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C., Hartwig, M., Karadas, M., & Bonilla, Y.(March, 2011). Using ACID to detect deception in transcripts and audio recordings. A poster submitted to the biennial International Congress of Psychology and Law.

Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Colwell, K., Hazelett, G., & Morgan, C.A. (March, 2011). Using ACID for Credibility Assessment through an Interpreter with and English Speaking Interviewer and Arabic Speaking Suspect. A paper presented to the biennial International Congress of Psychology and Law.

Cole, L., Colwell, K., Hartwig, M., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Hallinan, C., & Kradas, M. (March, 2011). Enhancing  Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception (ACID) through the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE). A paper submitted to the biennial International Congress of Psychology and Law.

Colwell, L.H., Colwell, K. (2011). Assessing feigned cognitive impairment in defendants hospitalized for Competency Restoration: Further validation of the TOMI.  paper submitted to the biennial International Congress of Psychology and Law.

Colwell, K., Webb, R., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Hallinan, C., Kradas, M., & Bonilla, Y. (June, 2011). Impression Management and Deception During an Investigative Interview: When Innocent Suspects Lie. A paper submitted to the Society for the Study of Individual Differences.

Hsieh, C., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Colwell, K., Florence, S., Sorcinelli, A. & French, M.N.  (2012) Strategies of Impression Management and Deception among Chinese and  English speakers. A paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American  Psychology and Law Society.

Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Colwell, K., Danna, M., Rodriguez, N., Sorcinelli, A., & French,  M.N. (2012). Using ACID to help police detect deception. A paper presented at the  Annual Conference of the American Psychology and Law Society.

Gavigan, B.J., Fede, J., Richards, E., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Pankratz, L., & Colwell, K.  (2012). A forced-choice test to detect witness deception. A paper presented at the  Annual Conference of the American Psychology and Law Society.

Williams, S.M., Talwar, V., Rodriguez, Fede, J., Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K. (2012). The mistakes of child lie tellers: using the assessment criteria indicative of deception (ACID) system with children. A paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Psychology and Law Society.

Colwell, K., Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Evans, M.R., Kansinally, A., Stanley, G., & Clayton, J. (2013). Differential Recall Enhancement (DRE): The interaction among interviewing, memory, and deception. A paper submitted to the biennial conference of the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition (SARMAC: June – Rotterdam).

Hiscock-Anisman, C.K., Colwell, K., Brunks, R.D., Webb, R., & Clayton, J. (2013). Differential Recall Enhancement, ACID, and deception. A paper presented to the biennial conference of the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition. June – Rotterdam.

Henry, C., Kradas, M., Colwell, K., Talwar, V., Williams, S., & Marsland, K. (2013). Detecting Deception with Children’s Written and Audio Statements: Reliability and Validity of ACID by stimulus modality. Poster presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development. April - Seattle.

Talwar, V., Williams, S., & Colwell, K. (2013). Evaluating Children’s Honesty: The Effects of Increasing Cognitive Load on Children’s True and False Reports. Poster presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development. April - Seattle.

Marty, S., Colwell, K., & Derosa, J. (2017) Automated assessment of credibility via the Type-Token Ratio. Poster submitted to the Association of Psychological Science. April. Boston.

Barrada, J., Colwell, K., & Marty, S. (2017) Credibility Assessment of True and False allegations of being mistreated by people with authority. Poster submitted to the Association of Psychological Science. April. Boston.

Digaetano, B., French, M., Suckle-Nelson, J., & Colwell, K. (2017). Strategies of Impression Management by Gender among adult suspects. Poster submitted to the Association of Psychological Science. April. Boston.

Colwell, K., Memon, A., Cole, L., James-Kangal, N. (2017). Innocent suspects lying to Omission. Poster submitted to the Association of Psychological Science. April. Boston.

 
Grants and Contracts:

10/09/97  Investigative Interviewing and the Detection of Deception. Presented six hours of Category I Continuing Education Credit for psychologists in the State of Texas. Curriculum focused on interviewing children who allege sexual abuse.

1998  Statistics in Educational and Psychological Research, Sam Houston State University. Research consultant for doctoral students in Educational Psychology.

10/99  Ethics in Criminal Justice. Invited presentation on Ethics provided to Criminal Justice doctoral students at Sam Houston State University

11/99  Interviewing and Deception. Research and training consultation to Psychology Department at SUNY-Fredonia

03/02  Malingering and Deception. Training for pre-doctoral interns and licensed psychologists at Alliant University/CSPP in California

01/24/03  Malingering and Deception. Training for pre-doctoral interns and licensed psychologists at Alliant University/CSPP in California

2004  Interviewing and Deception. American Psychological Association Washington, D.C.

2004-2005   Interviewing and Deception. Training and research consultation with Yale Medical School and Behavioral Science Specialists, $20,000

2006  Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception. Washington, D.C., $10,000

2006  Interviewing and Deception. Detectives and Chiefs, Amherst Police Department, Amherst, New York

2008  Interviewing and Credibility Assessment. Psi Chi induction ceremony, Southern Connecticut State University

2008  ACID and Deception. Professional training program presented to Briarwood Community College

07/15/09  You Can’t Handle the Truth: Who Can Catch a Liar? Training presented to the San Diego Police Department

09/23/09  ACID to Detect Deception. Training presented to Forensic Grand Rounds series, Connecticut Valley Hospital

09/24/09  Teaching High School Administrators to Evaluate Allegations of Teachers’ Misbehavior Toward Students. Training presented to Columbia College of Teacher Education, Columbia University

09/09  Strategies to change police interviewing and interrogation practices to reduce false convictions. Consultation provided to The Center on Wrongful Convictions at Northwestern University School of Law

02/11  Training California Peace Officers Association –  Interviewing and the Detection of Deception using ACID

08/11  Behavioral Science Consortium, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center. Georgia, USA.

9/12  Training provided to the High Value Interrogation Group, National Center for Counter Terrorism, Washington, D.C.

9/14   Interrogation and Confession Expert, Travis County, Texas

11/14  Interviewing and Credibility, Services Division, CT State Department of Corrections.

6/15  Interrogation and Confession Expert, Travis County, Texas

2/16  Interrogation and Confession Expert, Round Rock, Texas

1/17  Training: Test of Malingered Incompetence. Global Institute for Forensic Research. Provided at the Chicago School of Professional Psychology. Washington, DC

1/17  Training: Investigative Interviewing and ACID: Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception. Global Institute for Forensic Research. Provided at the Chicago School of Professional Psychology. Washington, DC